This book begins by investigating, through the use of think-aloud protocols, the mental processes of students when they translate. The creative and successful processes observed can be used directly for teaching purposes, while the unsuccessful ones can serve to find out where remedial training is needed. The book then goes on to discuss methods for improving a translator's competence. The strategies offered are based on the pragmatic and semantic analysis of texts from a functional point of view, and they include such practical matters as the use of dictionaries and the evaluation of translations and error analysis. The book is intended for teachers in translator-training institutions, but it can also be used by students for self-training.
Narrative research is frequently described as a diverse enterprise, yet the kinds of narrative data that it bases itself on present a striking consensus: they tend to be autobiographical and elicited in interviews. This book sets out to carve out a space alongside this narrative canon for stories that have not made it to the mainstream of narrative and identity analysis, yet they abound as well as being crucial sites of subjectivity in everyday interactional contexts. By labelling those stories as 'small', the book emphasizes their distinctiveness, both interactionally and as an antidote to the tradition of 'grand' narratives research. Drawing primarily on the audio-recorded small stories of...
Since the advent of the computer, terminology management can be carried out by almost anyone who has learnt to use a computer. Terminology management has proved to be an efficient tool in international communications in industry, education and international organisations. Software packages are readily available and international corporations often have their own terminology database. Following these developments, translators and terminologists are confronted with a specialised form of information management involving compilation and standardisation of vocabulary, storage, retrieval and updating.A Practical Course in Terminology Processing provides the key to methods of terminology management for the English language, for general and specific purposes. This unique course has been developed on the basis of years of teaching experience and research at the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST, UK) and is particularly suitable for translation courses, freelance translators, technical writers, as well as for non-linguists who are confronted with terminology processing as part of their profession. The 1996 reprint of the paperback edition includes an index.
This work aims to provide insights into the way a corpus can be used, the type of findings that can be obtained, the possible applications of these findings as well as the theoretical changes that corpus work can bring into linguistics and language engineering. Topics include the rise of corpus linguistics, delexicalization, semantic prosodies and different corpora for different purposes.
Gestures are ubiquitous and natural in our everyday life. They convey information about culture, discourse, thought, intentionality, emotion, intersubjectivity, cognition, and first and second language acquisition. Additionally, they are used by non-human primates to communicate with their peers and with humans. Consequently, the modern field of gesture studies has attracted researchers from a number of different disciplines such as anthropology, cognitive science, communication, neuroscience, psycholinguistics, primatology, psychology, robotics, sociology and semiotics. This volume presents an overview of the depth and breadth of current research in gesture. Its focus is on the interdisciplinary nature of gesture. The twenty-six chapters included in the volume are divided into six sections or themes: the nature and functions of gesture, first language development and gesture, second language effects on gesture, gesture in the classroom and in problem solving, gesture aspects of discourse and interaction, and gestural analysis of music and dance.
From government eavesdropping to Internet crime, reality TV to computer-mediated communication and mobile telephones, the face of communication has fundamentally changed. The contingencies and complexities of communication can be witnessed in old and new media, in changing patterns of face-to-face interactions and the pluralization of the self and blurring of the distinction between the real and virtual. To date, theories of interaction have been slow to conceptualize communication in terms of its instabilities. Social communication models remain heavily indebted to an interaction paradigm which is often intuitive, epistemologically conservative and even a-critical. By contrast, an interdisciplinary programme in communication covers a complex field which requires the broadest possible range of approaches beyond current disciplinary confines. This collection seeks to examine some of the implications for our understanding of interaction when communication is conceptualized as a complex uncertainty.
The Stylistique comparée du français et de l'anglais has become a standard text in the French-speaking world for the study of comparative stylistics and the training of translators. This updated, first English edition makes Vinay & Darbelnet's classic methodology of translation available to a wider readership. The translation-oriented contrastive grammatical and stylistic analyses of the two languages are extensively exemplified by expressions, phrases and texts. Combining description with methodological guidelines for translation, this volume serves both as a course book and through its detailed index and glossary as a reference manual for specific translation problems.
Frequency and the Emergence of Linguistic Structure
A mainstay of functional linguistics has been the claim that linguistic elements and patterns that are frequently used in discourse become conventionalized as grammar. This book addresses the two issues that are basic to this claim: first, the question of what types of elements are frequently used in discourse and second, the question of how frequency of use affects cognitive representations. Reporting on evidence from natural conversation, diachronic change, variability, child language acquisition and psycholinguistic experimentation the original articles in this book support two major principles. First, the content of people’s interactions consists of a preponderance of subjective, evaluative statements, dominated by the use of pronouns, copulas and intransitive clauses. Second, the frequency with which certain items and strings of items are used has a profound influence on the way language is broken up into chunks in memory storage, the way such chunks are related to other stored material and the ease with which they are accessed to produce new utterances.
This is a general discussion of the phonology of English within the frameworks of lexical, metrical, and prosodic phonology. It not only presents a synthesis of current approaches but also reconciles their discrepancies and presents critical commentary. There is a discussion of current theories, segment and syllable structure, stress, and prosodic categories and their role in determining the application of segmental rules. Two chapters discuss lexical phonology as divided into a cyclic and a postcyclic stratum, while the final chapter discusses postlexical phonology and some other approaches. The book includes exercises and can be used as an undergraduate or graduate textbook; at the same time, it is a valuable research tool for phonologists.